Voltage and Frequency
When designing an OPS system, many parameters need to be considered. Terminals equipped with OPS have to take into account the variations in power, voltage and frequency levels in different parts of the world.
The low-voltage systems (typically 400-480 V) that have been applied earlier required numerous connection cables, while todays high-voltage systems (6.6 -11 kV) are easier to handle. The difference in electrical frequency between the North American continent/parts of Japan and the rest of the world is also a factor that needs to be allowed for.
In addition, the frequency and voltage of onboard electrical systems may differ among vessel’s sizes and categories. The section equipment and solutions discusses the issues of interoperability, varying electrical frequencies and the power requirements at berth for different ship types.