As the available examples and studies show, the required investments may vary considerably, depending on the local situation. In addition, cost calculations for RoRo terminals are different from those for container or bulk terminals. On the one hand RoRo ships have a high number of port calls and on the other, relatively low investment costs due to their low power requirements.
The need for a frequency converter is also associated with significant investments. The operational cost advantage of OPS depends on fuel and electricity prices and any tax on electrical power.